• Ts'ebetso ea tlhahiso ea hydrogen peroxide
  • Ts'ebetso ea tlhahiso ea hydrogen peroxide

Ts'ebetso ea tlhahiso ea hydrogen peroxide

Tlhaloso e Khutšoanyane:

Moetso oa lik'hemik'hale oa hydrogen peroxide ke H2O2, eo hangata e tsejoang e le hydrogen peroxide.Ponahalo ke mokelikeli o hlakileng o se nang 'mala, ke oxidant e matla, tharollo ea eona ea metsi e loketse ho thibela likokoana-hloko tsa maqeba a bongaka le ho thibela likokoana-hloko tikolohong le lijo.


Lintlha tsa Sehlahisoa

Li-tag tsa Sehlahisoa

Ts'ebetso ea tlhahiso ea hydrogen peroxide

Moetso oa lik'hemik'hale oa hydrogen peroxide ke H2O2, eo hangata e tsejoang e le hydrogen peroxide.Ponahalo ke mokelikeli o hlakileng o se nang 'mala, ke oxidant e matla, tharollo ea eona ea metsi e loketse ho thibela likokoana-hloko tsa maqeba a bongaka le ho thibela likokoana-hloko tikolohong le lijo.Tlas'a maemo a tloaelehileng, e tla bola e be metsi le oksijene, empa sekhahla sa ho bola se lieha haholo, 'me lebelo la karabelo le potlakisoa ka ho eketsa catalyst - manganese dioxide kapa mahlaseli a nako e khuts'oane.

Lintho tsa 'mele

Tharollo e nang le metsi ke mokelikeli o bonaletsang o se nang 'mala, o qhibilihang ka metsing, joala, ether, 'me o sa qhibilihe ka har'a benzene le petroleum ether.

Peroxide e hloekileng ea hydrogen peroxide ke mokelikeli o khanyang o moputsoa o nang le mokelikeli o khanyang oa -0.43 ° C le ntlha e belang ea 150.2 ° C. Peroxide e hloekileng ea hydrogen e tla fetola sebopeho sa eona sa limolek'hule, kahoo ntlha ea ho qhibiliha le eona e tla fetoha.Boima bo tiileng sebakeng sa leqhoa e ne e le 1.71 g/, 'me boima bo ile ba fokotseha ha mocheso o ntse o eketseha.E na le kamano e kholo ho feta H2O, kahoo sebaka sa eona sa dielectric kamehla le se belang se phahame ho feta metsi.Peroxide e hloekileng ea hydrogen e batla e tsitsitse, 'me e senyeha ka matla ka metsing le oksijene ha e futhumala ho 153 ° C. Ke habohlokoa ho hlokomela hore ha ho na intermolecular hydrogen bond ho hydrogen peroxide.

Hydrogen peroxide e na le phello e matla ea oxidation linthong tse phelang 'me hangata e sebelisoa e le ntho e etsang oxidation.

Lintho tsa lik'hemik'hale

1. Oxidative
(Loto e tšoeu ka har'a pente ea oli [lead lead carbonate] e tla itšoara ka hydrogen sulfide moeeng ho etsa black lead sulfide, e ka hlatsuoang ka hydrogen peroxide)
(e hloka alkaline medium)

2. Ho fokotsa
3. Ka 10 ml ea tharollo ea 10% ea sampuli, eketsa 5 ml ea dilute sulfuric acid test solution (TS-241) le 1 ml ea potassium permanganate test solution (TS-193).
Ho lokela ho ba le li-bubble mme 'mala oa potassium permanganate oa nyamela.E na le asiti ho litmus.Tabeng ea lintho tse phelang, e ea phatloha.
4. Nka 1 g ea sampuli (e nepahetseng ho 0.1 mg) 'me u hlapolle ho 250.0 ml ka metsi.25 ml ea tharollo ena e ile ea nkoa, 'me 10 ml ea tharollo ea tlhahlobo ea sulfuric acid (TS-241) e ile ea kenngoa, e lateloa ke titration ka 0.1 mol / L potassium permanganate.0.1 mol / L ka ml.Potassium permanganate e lumellana le 1,70 mg ea hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2).
5. Tabeng ea lintho tse phelang, mocheso, ho lokolloa ha oksijene le metsi, haeba ho na le chromic acid, potassium permanganate, phofo ea tšepe e ile ea itšoara ka mabifi.E le ho thibela ho bola, ho ka eketsoa palo e nyenyane ea stabilizer e kang sodium stannate, sodium pyrophosphate kapa tse ling tse joalo.
6. Peroxide ea hydrogen ke acid e fokolang haholo: H2O2 = (e fetolehang) = H ++HO2-(Ka = 2.4 x 10-12).Ka hona, peroxide ea tšepe e ka nkoa e le letsoai la eona.

Sepheo se seholo

Tšebeliso ea hydrogen peroxide e arotsoe ka tšebeliso ea bongaka, sesole le indasteri.Tšoaetso ea letsatsi le letsatsi ke hydrogen peroxide ea bongaka.Hydrogen peroxide ea bongaka e ka bolaea likokoana-hloko tsa mala, pyogenic cocci, le tomoso ea pathogenic, tseo hangata li sebelisetsoang ho thibela likokoana-hloko holim'a lintho.Peroxide ea hydrogen e na le phello ea oxidation, empa khatello ea hydrogen peroxide ea bongaka e lekana kapa e tlase ho 3%.Ha e hlakotsoe ka holim'a leqeba, e tla chesa, bokaholimo bo tla ba oxidized hore e be tšoeu le bubble, 'me e ka hlatsuoa ka metsi.Ka mor'a metsotso e 3-5 Khutlisetsa letlalo la pele.

Indasteri ea lik'hemik'hale e sebelisoa e le thepa e tala bakeng sa ho hlahisa sodium perborate, sodium percarbonate, peracetic acid, sodium chlorite, thiourea peroxide, joalo-joalo, li-oxidizing agents tse kang tartaric acid le divithamini.Indasteri ea meriana e sebelisoa e le sebolaea-mafu, sebolaea likokoana-hloko, le oxidant bakeng sa tlhahiso ea thiram le lilithara tse 40 tsa li-antibacterial agents.Indasteri ea khatiso le ho daea e sebelisoa e le ntho e soeufatsang masela a k'hothone hape e le ntho e kenyang mebala bakeng sa ho daea VAT.Ho tlosoa ha tšepe le lisebelisoa tse ling tse boima ha ho sebelisoa tlhahiso ea matsoai a tšepe kapa metsoako e meng.E boetse e sebelisoa libate tsa electroplating ho tlosa litšila tse sa tsitsang le ho ntlafatsa boleng ba likarolo tse pentiloeng.E boetse e sebelisoa bakeng sa boea bo soeufatsang, silika e tala, lenaka la tlou, makhasi, mafura, joalo-joalo. Maemo a phahameng a hydrogen peroxide a ka sebelisoa e le mafura a matla a rokete.

Tšebeliso ea sechaba: ho sebetsana le monko oa likhoerekhoere tsa kichineng, ho ea k'hemisteng ho reka hydrogen peroxide hammoho le metsi hammoho le phofo ea ho hlatsoa ka har'a likhoerekhoere e ka silafatsoa, ​​ea hlatsuoa, ea hloekisoa;

3% ea hydrogen peroxide (sehlopha sa bongaka) bakeng sa ho bolaea likokoana-hloko leqeba.

Molao oa indasteri

Mokhoa oa tlhahiso ea alkaline hydrogen peroxide: electrode ea moea e nang le krypton bakeng sa ho hlahisa alkaline hydrogen peroxide, e khetholloang ka hore para e 'ngoe le e' ngoe ea li-electrode e entsoe ka poleiti ea anode, letlooeng la polasetiki, lera la cation le cathode ea moea e nang le helium, e ka holimo. le lipheletsong tse ka tlaase tsa sebaka se sebetsang sa li-electrode.Ho na le phaposi ea kabo ea ho kenya mokelikeli le phaposing ea pokello bakeng sa ho ntša mokelikeli, 'me sekoti se hlophisitsoe ka har'a seketsoana sa mokelikeli,' me elektrode e nang le likarolo tse ngata e sebelisa mokhoa o lekanyelitsoeng oa khokahano ea dipole ho lelefatsa bonolo ba polasetiki ea anode e potolohang. sekoti sa metsi a alkaline.Ka mor'a hore tube e kopane le mefuta e mengata ea ho bokella mokelikeli, sehlopha sa li-electrode tse nang le likarolo tse ngata se bokelloa ke poleiti ea yuniti.

Phosphoric acid neutralization mokhoa: e tšoauoa ka hore e lokiselitsoe ho tsoa ho tharollo ea sodium peroxide e nang le metsi ka mehato e latelang:

(1) Tharollo e nang le metsi a sodium peroxide e fokotsehile ho pH ea 9.0 ho 9.7 ka phosphoric acid kapa sodium dihydrogen phosphate NaH2PO4 ho etsa tharollo e nang le metsi a Na2HPO4 le H2O2.

(2) Tharollo ea metsi ea Na2HPO4 le H2O2 e ne e pholile ho +5 ho ea ho -5 ° C e le hore boholo ba Na2HPO4 bo be le pula e le Na2HPO4•10H2O hydrate.

(3) Motsoako o nang le Na2HPO4 • 10H 2 O hydrate le tharollo ea hydrogen peroxide e nang le metsi e arotsoe ka karohano ea centrifugal ho arola Na 2HPO 4 • 10H 2 O likristale ho tloha ho palo e nyenyane ea Na 2 HPO 4 le tharollo ea hydrogen peroxide e nang le metsi.

(4) Tharollo ea metsi e nang le palo e nyenyane ea Na2HPO4 le hydrogen peroxide e ile ea fetoha mouoane ka mouoane ho fumana mouoane o nang le H2O2 le H2O, 'me motsoako oa letsoai o nang le motsoako oa Na2HPO4 o nang le hydrogen peroxide o ile oa ntšoa ka tlaase' me oa khutlela tanka ea neutralization. .

(5) Mouoane o nang le H2O2 le H2O o kenngoa ho "fractional distillation" tlas'a khatello e fokotsehileng ho fumana hoo e ka bang 30% H2O2 sehlahisoa.

Electrolytic sulfuric acid mokhoa: electrolyzed 60% sulfuric acid ho fumana acid e peroxodisulfuric, 'me joale hydrolyzed ho fumana mahloriso a 95% hydrogen peroxide.

Mokhoa oa 2-Ethyl oxime: Mokhoa o ka sehloohong oa tlhahiso ea tekanyo ea indasteri ke mokhoa oa 2-ethyl oxime (EAQ).2-ethyl hydrazine ka mocheso o itseng.

Matla a sebetsa le hydrogen tlasa ts'ebetso ea catalyst ho etsa 2-ethylhydroquinone, 'me 2-ethylhydroquinone e hlahisa oksijene ka oksijene mochesong o itseng le khatello.

Phokotso ea maikutlo, 2-ethylhydroquinone e fokotsehile ho theha 2-ethyl hydrazine le hydrogen peroxide e thehoa.Ka mor'a ho ntšoa, tharollo ea hydrogen peroxide e nang le metsi e fumanoa, 'me qetellong e hloekisoe ka hydrocarbon e monko o matla ho fumana mokelikeli o tšoanelehang oa hydrogen peroxide, o tsejoang ka ho fetisisa e le hydrogen peroxide.Boholo ba tshebetso ena e sebelisoa ho lokisetsa 27,5% hydrogen peroxide, 'me e phahameng mahloriso aqueous hydrogen peroxide tharollo (tse kang 35%, 50% peroxide hydrogen) ka fumanoa ka distillation.


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